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Apart from official documents, post-World War I Germany was referred to as the "German Reich" — never as the "German Empire" — for example, by British politicians  —and the word "Reich" was used untranslated by Allied prosecutors throughout the Nuremberg Trials , with "German Empire" only used to describe Germany before it became a federal republic in At the Unification of Germany aside from Austria , the Reich was established constitutionally as a federation of monarchies, each having entered the federation with a defined territory; and consequently the unitary nationalism of the 'German Reich' was initially specified at Article 1 of the constitution in territorial terms, as the lands within the former boundaries of this particular subset of German monarchies.
This transition became formalised in the constitution of the Weimar Republic ,  where Article 1 identifies the Reich as deriving its authority from the German national people, while Article 2 identifies the state territory under the Reich as the lands which, at the time of the constitution's adoption, were within the authority of the German state.
The identity of Reich and people ran both ways—not only did the institutions of the German state derive their legitimacy from the German people, so, too, the German people derived their inherent identity and patriotic duties from their being collectively constituted as an organ and institution of the German Reich.
The — republic , which was also called German Reich, was ignored and denounced by the Nazis as a historical aberration. The name "Weimar Republic" was first used in after Hitler referred to the period as the " Republik von Weimar " Republic of Weimar at a rally in Munich with the term later becoming mainstream during the s both within and outside Germany.
A book entitled Das Dritte Reich by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck  counted the medieval Holy Roman Empire as the first and the — monarchy as the second, which was then to be followed by a "reinvigorated" third one.
On 8 May , with the capitulation of the German armed forces, the supreme command of the Wehrmacht was handed over to the Allies.
The Allies refused to recognise Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident or to recognise the legitimacy of his Flensburg Government so-called because it was based at Flensburg and controlled only a small area around the town and, on 5 June , the four powers signed the Berlin Declaration and assumed de jure supreme authority with respect to Germany.
At the Potsdam Conference , Allied-occupied Germany was defined as comprising "Germany as a whole"; and was divided into British , French , American and Soviet occupation zones; while the Allied Powers exercised the state authority assumed by the Berlin Declaration in transferring the former eastern territories of the German Reich east of the Oder—Neisse line to the Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union.
The court ruled that since the Federal Republic FRG had been partially identical with the German Reich and not merely its successor.
This was explained as being because the German Democratic Republic was beyond FRG authority and because the Allied powers still had jurisdiction where "Germany as a whole" was concerned.
Nevertheless, the Court insisted that within the territory of the Federal Republic, the GDR could only be considered as one de jure German state amongst others, on the analogy of the pre-existing de jure German states that in had come together as the Federal Republic; and hence, like them, could never be accorded by the organs of the Federal Republic full recognition as a state in international law; even though the Federal Constitutional Court recognised that, within international law, the GDR was indeed an independent sovereign state.
The constitutional status of the GDR under the Basic Law still differed from that of the Länder of the Federal Republic, in that the GDR had not declared its accession to the Basic Law; but the Constitutional Court maintained that the Basic Treaty was consistent with the GDR declaring its accession at some time in the future in accordance with its own constitution; and hence the Court determined that in recognising the GDR as a de jure German State, the Basic Treaty could be interpreted as facilitating the reunification of the German Reich as indeed it eventually did.
So long as any de jure German state remained separated from the rest, the German Reich could continue to exist only in suspension; but should the GDR be reunited with the Federal Republic, the Reich would once more be fully capable of action as a sovereign state.
After , however, the claimed identity of the Federal Republic with the German Reich was not recognised by most other countries of the world.
The Soviet Union, the three Western allies, and most other Western countries regarded the German Reich as still being one nation — not synonymous with either the West or East German state but rather the two states in collective.
Other countries tended to regard the German Reich as having been divided into two distinct states in international law, and accordingly accorded both states full diplomatic recognition.
As of , East Germany's official stance was that the GDR was a new state that is German in nature, a successor of the German Empire,  and that there were then two German states that were different nations.
When the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany between Germany and the wartime Allies was signed on 12 September , there was no mention of the term Deutsches Reich , however the Allies paraphrased the international legal personality of Germany as "Germany as a whole" in the English version of the text.
On meeting these conditions under Article 7. Under Article 1 of the Treaty on Final Settlement, the new united Germany committed itself to renouncing any further territorial claims beyond the boundaries of East Germany, West Germany and Berlin; "The united Germany has no territorial claims whatsoever against other states and shall not assert any in the future.
Article 23 of the Basic Law was repealed, closing off the possibility for any further states to apply for membership of the Federal Republic; while Article was amended to state explicitly that the territory of the newly unified republic comprised the entirety of the German people; "This Basic Law, which since the achievement of the unity and freedom of Germany applies to the entire German people, shall cease to apply on the day on which a constitution freely adopted by the German people takes effect".
This was confirmed in the rewording of the preamble; "Germans.. This Basic Law thus applies to the entire German people.
In so far as the German Reich may be claimed to continue in existence as 'Germany as a whole', the former eastern territories of Germany in Poland or Russia, and the western territories, such as the eastern cantons or Elsass-Lothringen, are now definitively and permanently excluded from ever again being united within this Reich under the Basic Law.
Hence, although the GDR had by the Volkskammer's declaration of accession to the Federal Republic, initiated the process of reunification; the act of reunification itself with its many specific terms and conditions; including the fundamental amendments to the Basic Law required by the Treaty of Final Settlement was achieved constitutionally by the subsequent Unification Treaty of 31 August ; that is through a binding agreement between the former GDR and the Federal Republic now recognising each another as separate sovereign states in international law.
Hence, although the GDR had nominally declared its accession the Federal Republic under Article 23 of the Basic Law, this did not imply its acceptance of the Basic Law as it then stood; but rather of the Basic Law as subsequently amended in line with the Unification Treaty and the Treaty of Final Settlement.
These amendments had the effect of removing all those clauses by which the Federal Constitutional Court had formerly maintained the identity of the Federal Republic with the historic 'German Reich', specifically including the very Article 23 that had provided the basis for the Volkskammer's declaration of accession.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Official name for the German nation state from to and name of Germany until Part of a series on the.
German Confederation Zollverein. Occupation Ostgebiete. Reunification New federal states. See also: Reich. Nevertheless the official name of the German Empire remained as Deutsches Reich because the constitutional position of the head of state was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people , but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.
Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 16 October Der Spiegel. Npi Media Ltd. May 1,Fakt ist, wer mit Sportwetten reich werden möchte, hat einen langen und steinigen Weg vor sich und darf sich mit Rückschlägen nicht. Millionen. frau sucht mann reich partnervermittlung hannover kostenlos kennenlernen im [url=jandijkstrafotografie.nl]flirten Гјbersetzung. The killing me Гјbersetzung negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, dem Reich und Schweden zu einem deutschen Verfassungskonventwährend in. single mindedness Гјbersetzung neue leute kennenlernen wolfsburg bremen nicht mehr jandijkstrafotografie.nl eckstreffen-fuer-frauen-oester reich/. nicht mehr jandijkstrafotografie.nl eckstreffen-fuer-frauen-oester reich/ chair singlestammtisch heidelberg singlespeed Гјbersetzung bergauf reena.